Doping is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) in line with Code Art. 2 (Anti-Doping Rule Violations):
1. Presence of a prohibited substance in an Athlete’s sample
2. Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
3. Refusal to submit to sample collection after being notified
4. Failure to file Athlete Whereabouts information & missed tests
5. Tampering with any part of the doping control process
6. Possession of a prohibited substance or method
7. Trafficking a prohibited substance or method
8. Administering or attempting to administer a prohibited substance or method to an Athlete
9. Complicity in an ADRV
10. Prohibited association with sanctioned Athlete Support Personnel
11. Discourage or Retaliate other Persons from reporting relevant Anti-Doping information to the authorities.
The first four Anti-Doping Rule Violations apply only to athletes since they refer to the obligation not to take banned substances and the obligation to submit to testing.
The remaining seven Anti-Doping Rules apply to both the athletes and the Athlete Support Personnel including coaches, medical professionals, or anyone else working with the athlete or involved in anti-doping activities. National and International Federation administrators, officials and sample collection staff may also be liable for their conduct under the World Anti-Doping Code.